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What's the definition of disability used by Social Security?

Social Security follows the five-step sequential evaluation process:

The first step is to determine whether or not the claimant is engaging in substantial gainful activity. If so, the claim is denied. 

If not, the second step is to determine whether the claimant has an impairment which significantly limits ability to do basic work activities. If not, the claim is denied. 

If a severe impairment is present, the third step is to determine whether the impairment meets or equals one of Social Security's listed impairments. If it does, a finding of disability is directed.

If not, the fourth step is to determine whether the claimant's severe impairments prevent the performance past work (the jobs you used to do).  If not, the claim is denied.

If so, the fifth step is to determine whether the claimant's severe impairments prevent the performance of all other work in the national economy considering your remaining physical and mental abilities, age, education, and work experience. If not, the claim is denied. If so, a finding of disability is directed.