Indiana does not have a statewide dog leash statute. Instead, it allows local municipalities and county governments to determine their own dog leash regulations. Most city and county ordinances require that a dog be restrained at all times, regardless of whether it is on the owner’s property or public property. The following municipal ordinance that was applied in Plesha v. Edmonds, a leading case in Indiana dog bite law, is exemplary of most local leash ordinances throughout the state.
Hammond Ordinance 9151-A: [A]ll dogs and cats shall be kept under restraint. It is an animal owner’s responsibility to insure that animals on and off their real property be restrained. When off the real property, animals shall be on a leash not to exceed six feet *985 in length; or if without [a] leash, [the] animal must be under complete control of the owner and not more than three feet from the owner. Animals on real property must be within a fenced area sufficient in height to prevent the animal to escape; or if on a leash, the animal must be secured on a leash that is at least six feet in length and located where the animal cannot trespass beyond its owner’s property line.
Indianapolis Code 531-102a provides:
An owner or keeper of an animal commits a violation of the Code if that animal is at large in the city. At large means not confined without means of escape of any portion of the animal's body in a pen, corral, yard, cage, house, vehicle or other secure enclosure, unless on a leash and under the control of a competent human being.
Fort Wayne City Code 91.020 states:
All animals shall be properly restrained as defined in this chapter. Any animal is properly restrained when secured by a leash or lead and under the physical control of the animal's owner or attending party, or confined within the exterior boundaries of the owner's or harborer's real property.
Evansville City Code 6.05.060f requires:
An animal shall be leashed when it is off the owner’s property. One end of the leash shall be attached to the collar or harness and the other end attached to the person accompanying the animal. This provision shall not apply to an animal that is otherwise physically restrained at any facility.
Muncie Code 90.06 provides:
No person owning or having charge, care, custody,or control of any dog or cat shall cause, permit, or allow the dog or cat to run at large upon any street, alley, or other public place, or upon any private property or premises other than those of the person owning or having charge, care, custody, or control of the dog or cat, within the city.
At large means off the premises of the owner and not under the control of the owner or a member of his immediate family, either by leash, cord, chain, or under reasonable control of some